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David Sample

Associate Professor and Extension Specialist


Education

Ph.D., Civil Engineering, University of Colorado, 2003

M.S., Environmental Engineering, University of Florida, 1984

B.S., Environmental Engineering, University of Florida, 1981

Experience

August 2015 - present – Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech

August 2008 - July 2015 – Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech

May 2005-June 2008 – Principal Engineer and Practice Leader, Water Resources, Brown and Caldwell, Atlanta, GA.

April 2004- May 2005 – Senior Water Resources Engineer, MACTEC Engineering and Consulting, Kennesaw, GA.

August 2003-April 2004 – Senior Water Resource Engineer, ENTRIX Environmental, Atlanta, GA.

July 2000- August 2003 – Senior Water Resource Engineer, LAW Engineering, Kennesaw, GA.

August 1995-January 1997 – District Engineer, Left Hand Water District, Longmont, CO.

February 1989-May 1993 – City Engineer, City of Gainesville, Gainesville, GA.

September 1988-February 1989 – County Engineer, Columbia County, Evans, GA.

August 1987-September 1988 – Assistant County Engineer, Richmond County, Augusta, GA.

May 1986-June 1987 – Environmental Engineer, GZA Environmental, Newton, MA.

February 1984-May 1986 – Environmental Engineer, US EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA.

September 1983-February 1984 – Project Engineer, Taulmann Corporation, Atlanta, GA.

September 1982-June 1983 – Water Resource Engineer, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL.

Selected Major Awards

  • Chesapeake Stormwater Network, 3rd Place, Ultra-Urban BMP Category, 2014 Best Urban BMP in the Bay, Team award, Adamstown, MD, May 13-15, 2014.  
  • James River Association, 2nd Place, Site Design, Suburban Mixed Use Category for Virginia’s Low Impact Development Competition, Team award, Lexington, Virginia, April 12, 2012.
  • American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Blue Ribbon Award, Educational Aids: Comprehensive Publications (33 or more pages), Team award, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers for: Urban Nutrient Management Handbook, Dallas, Texas, July 29-August 1, 2012.
  • American Academy of Water Resources Engineers, Diplomat, 2005.

Courses Taught Last Five Years

  • BSE 5984/CEE 5984 - Urban Stormwater Management and Design, co-taught with Professors Moglen and Grizzard (CEE)

Other Teaching and Advising

I advise and mentor two master’s students, C. Bell and R. Johnson. In the spring of 2015, I will coadvise a doctoral student with Assistant Professor Z. Easton for the new NSF project on climate change. I am a member on 4 PhD student committees, 1 in BSE (N. Jones), 2 in CEE (N. Zou and K. Young) and 1 in PGG (M. Licher).  I am currently serving on 2 master’s student committees, R. Mack (HORT) and W. Orr (AG).  Former graduated students include 2 recent Ph.D. students in BSE, C.-Y. Wang and J. Liu (advisor); a CEE Ph.D., S. Kumar (committee member); 3 CEE M.S. students, D. Schwartz, P. Le Bel, and S. Petrey (committee member); and 1 AG M.S. student, J. Lynch (committee member).

I am a member of several regional and statewide committees that focus upon watershed management.  These include the Science and Technical Advisory Committee for the Chesapeake Bay Program Office, U.S. EPA, and the Stormwater Committee of the Virginia Chapter of American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE).  I am a member of the Urban Water Resources Research Council of ASCE-Environmental Water Resources Institute (EWRI), through which I co-Chair a national task committee on implementing Low Impact Development (LID) practices in combined sewer areas.

Program Focus

My research program focuses on improving our understanding of existing and new urban stormwater treatment practices, and what design and/or operational changes can improve long term water quality performance.  As part of this goal, I have or am developing research projects directed at design, monitoring and performance assessment; evaluation of costs and benefits; and generalizing the behavior of control practices known as best management practices or BMPs.  My long term objective is to develop design-based hydrologic and water quality models that can predict performance over the entire life cycle, and thus help optimize BMP design.

Program Focus

The goal of my extension program is to improve the understanding of practices used in managing urban stormwater.  My extension activities are intended to extend proven LID research to stormwater managers and designers as they adapt designs to improve water quality performance.  Another goal is to provide appropriate information to the public that will build capacity and knowledge on improving quality of urban runoff and other nonpoint source issues.  As part of meeting these objectives, my extension program develops education programs targeted at groups with the greatest need in the most current issues in stormwater management.  These include developing a watershed-based educational series; providing technical and educational guidance on stormwater BMPs; and working collaboratively with local/state/federal agencies, consultants, and other academics in developing an evaluation protocol for BMPs that incorporate proprietary technologies, verifying performance without hindering innovation.  I am developing and beginning to deliver a series of self-sustaining Extension workshops focused on educating BMP designers and reviewers about the newest and most cost-effective urban stormwater treatments available. The objective of these workshops will be to increase the capacity of my audiences so they are able to use leading edge engineering practices to address water quality issues.
 

Current Projects

  • Developing a self-sustaining workshop series on urban watershed management
  • Exploring the implementation of an evaluation program for proprietary BMPs in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, a U.S. EPA Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) funded workshop
  • Urban Nutrient Management Certification/Training program with VDCR - My contribution is a primer on urban runoff management. 

Selected Recent Publications

(* undergraduate student, ** graduate student, *** post-doc)

Refereed Journal Articles
  • Lynch, J.*, Fox, L.J., Owen, J.S., and Sample, D., In Press. Evaluation of commercial floating wetland mats for remediation of stormwater, Ecol. Eng., doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.11.001.
  • Lucas, W. C., and Sample, D. J., In Press. Reducing combined sewer overflows by using outlet controls for green stormwater infrastructure: case study in Richmond, Virginia. J. Hydrol.
  • Sample, D., Rangarajan, S., Boone, M., Lee, J., and Mangueurre, H., 2014. Urban wet-weather flows, Water Environ. Res., doi: 10.2175/106143014X14031280667372.
  • Wang, C.-Y.**, Sample, D. and Bell, C.**, 2014. Assessment of nutrient removal through vegetation harvest of floating treatment wetlands in urban stormwater ponds, Sci. of the Total Env., doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.063. Link to publication
  • Wang, C.-Y.**, Sample, D.J., Day, S.D., and Grizzard, T.J., 2014. Floating treatment wetland nutrient removal through vegetation harvest and observations from a field study, Ecol. Eng., doi: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.05.018. Link to publication
  • Liu, J.** Sample, D., Owen, J., Li, J.**, and Evanylo, G.E., 2014. Assessment of selected bioretention media blends for nutrient retention using mesocosm experiments, J. Environ. Qual., doi:10.2134/jeq2014.01.0017. Link to publication
  • Liu, J.**, Sample, D.J., Bell, C.**, and Guan, Y., 2014. Review and research needs of bioretention used for the treatment of urban stormwater, Water, 6 (4), pp. 1069-1099, doi:10.3390/w6041069. Link to publication
  • Sample, D. and Liu, J.**, 2014. Optimizing Rainwater Harvesting for the dual purposes of water supply and runoff capture, J. Clean. Prod., 75 (0), pp. 174-194.  doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.03.075. Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Lucas, W.L., Janeski, T., Roseen, R.M., Powers, D., Freeborn, J., and Fox, L.J.,  2014.  Greening Richmond, USA: a sustainable urban drainage demonstration project, P. I. Civil Eng., 167 (2), pp. 88–95, doi: 10.1680/cien.13.00036. Link to publication
  • Wang, C.-Y.** and Sample, D., 2014. Assessment of the nutrient removal effectiveness of floating treatment wetlands applied to urban retention ponds, J. Environ. Manage.,, pp. 1-13, Link to publication
  • Liu, J.**, Sample, D., and Zhang, H.***, 2013.  Frequency Analysis for Precipitation Events and Dry Durations of Virginia, Environ. Model. Assess., 19 (3), pp. 167-178,  doi: 10.1007/s10666-013-9390-2. Link to publication
  • Wang, C.-Y.**, and Sample, D., 2013. Assessing Floating Treatment Wetlands Nutrient Removal Performance through a First Order Kinetic Model and Statistical Inference, Ecol. Eng., 61, Part A (0), pp. 292-302. Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Liu, J.**, and Wang, S., 2013. Evaluating the Dual Benefits of Rainwater Harvesting Systems Using Reliability Analysis. J. Hydrol. Eng., 18 (10), pp. 1310-1321.   doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000748. Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Grizzard, T., Sansalone, J., Davis, A.P., Roseen, R. and Walker, J., 2012.  Assessing the Performance of Manufactured Treatment Practices for Removing Phosphorus from Urban Stormwater, J. Environ. Manage.,, 113, pp. 279-291, doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.08.039. Link to publication
  • Sample, D. and Powers, D.,**. 2012. An Analytical Method for Evaluating Pumps for a Storage-Pump System, Appl. Eng. Agric., ASABE, 28(4): 559-565, doi: 10.13031/2013.42085. Link to publication
  • Rangarajan, S., Sample, D.J., Boone, M., Lee, J., Muneer, A., Narayanaswamy, K., Hochstedler, M., 2012. Urban Wet-Weather Flows, Water Environ. Res., 2012. Urban Wet-Weather Flows. Water Environment Research, 84 (10), pp. 861-970.  
Extension Publications
  • Sample, D., Fox, L.J., and Galbraith, J., 2014. Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems Fact Sheet, VCE Pub. BSE-77, p. 11, Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Wang, C.-Y.**, Fox, L., 2013. Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands, Virginia Cooperative Extension, BSE-76P, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Barlow, S.*, 2012. Extended Detention Pond, BMP Fact Sheet #15, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-134, Virginia Cooperative Extension, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Barlow, S.*, 2012. Filtering Practices, BMP Fact Sheet #12, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-131, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Barlow, S.*, 2012. Grass Channels, BMP Fact Sheet #3, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-122, Publication 426-122, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Barlow, S.*, 2012. Infiltration Practices, BMP Fact Sheet #8, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-127, Virginia Cooperative Extension, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Barlow, S.*, 2012. Wet Pond/Retention Pond, BMP Fact Sheet #14, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-133, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Barlow, S.*, 2012. Soil Restoration, BMP Fact Sheet #4, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-123, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Barlow, S.*, Doumar, L., Wang, C.-Y., Liu, J., 2012. Urban Stormwater: Terms and Definitions, Virginia Cooperative Extension,  Publication 426-119, 8 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Doumar, L.*, 2012. Dry Swale, BMP Fact Sheet #10, Virginia Cooperative Extension, VCE Pub.426-129, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Doumar, L.*, 2012. Permeable Pavement, BMP Fact Sheet #7, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-126, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Doumar, L.*, 2012. Rainwater Harvesting, BMP Fact Sheet #6, Virginia Cooperative Extension,  Publication 426-125, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Doumar, L.*, 2012. Sheetflow to Open Space, BMP Fact Sheet #2, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-121. , 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Doumar, L.*, 2012. Vegetated Roofs, BMP Fact Sheet #5,  Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-124, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Doumar, L.*, 2012. Wet Swale, BMP Fact Sheet #11, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-130, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., 2011. Rooftop Disconnection, BMP Fact Sheet #1,Virginia Cooperative Extension,  Publication 426-120, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Liu, J.**, 2011. Bioretention, BMP Fact Sheet #9, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-128, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Sample, D., Wang, C.-Y.**, 2011. Constructed Wetlands, BMP Fact Sheet #13, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 426-132, 4 p., Link to publication
  • Goatley, J., (Ed.) , Daniels, W., Evanylo, G., Fox, L., Haering, K., Hodges, S., Maguire, R., Sample, D., Hansen, D., Kindig, D., Sexton, T., Habel, R., Hensler, K., 2011. Urban Nutrient Management Handbook, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Publication 430-350, 200 p., Link to publication

Selected Recent Funding

  • “Water, Sustainability and Climate (WSC)-Category 1 Collaborative Proposal: Coupled Multi-Scale Economic, Hydrologic and Estuarine Modeling to Assess Impacts of Climate Change on Water Quality Management”, National Science Foundation, PI: Z. Easton, Co-PIs: D. Sample, D. Bosch.Amount: $360,000, 7/14-6/17.
  • City of Virginia Beach, Technical Services, Stormwater Modeling, PI: D. Sample, Amount: $146,577, 7/14-12/15.
  • “Performance Assessment of LID Practices in Fairfax County, Virginia”, PI: Sample, D., (BSE) Grizzard, T. (CEE), and Dymond, R., (CEE), Fairfax County, $66,000, 7/11-6/12.
  • Evaluation of Bioretention Recipes for Sequestering Stormwater Nitrogen and Phosphorus:   Conducting a mesocosm study on 5 separate bioretention media mixes to assist in guidance development for minimizing nutrients in discharges.  PI:  G. Evanylo, Co-PI: D. Sample.  USDA-NIFA, Mid-Atlantic Water Program. Amount: $26,000, 7/1/12-5/31/13.  
  • Technical Evaluator for VDCR:  To provide support for VDCR and the BMP Clearinghouse through evaluation of MTDs.  Revew of applications, QAPPs, Technical Evaluation Reports, etc., with assistance of funded post-doc.   PI:  D. Sample, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation.  $96,000, 1/1/13-12/31/13.
  • “Urban Retrofitting: Demonstration, Monitoring, Training and Certification of LID at the Science Museum of Virginia”, Richmond, VA, Design and Construction, PI: Sample, D., (BSE), Co-PIs: Grizzard, T. (CEE), Science Museum of Virginia and the National Wildlife Foundation, $66,000, 6/09-4/12.
  • “Floating Treatment Wetland Performance Evaluation and Implementation”, City of Fairfax, VA, PI: Sample, D. (BSE), Co-PIs: T. Grizzard (CEE), A. Godrej (CEE), National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, $319,000, 5/09-3/13.
  • “Shockoe Creek Sewershed LID Retrofit Study”, Richmond, VA, PI: Sample, D. (BSE), Science Museum of Virginia/National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, $34,000, 1/11-4/12.
  • “Development of a Phosphorus Testing Protocol for Manufactured Treatment Devices”, Virginia, PI: Sample, D. (BSE), Co-PI: T. Grizzard (CEE), Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, $44,000, 6/09-5/10.
  • “Long-term Costs and Management Issues Associated with Stormwater BMPs”, PI: Stephenson, K., (AAEC), Co-PI: Sample, D. (BSE), Richardson, J. (UAP), U.S. EPA STAR Fellowship (PhD Student Monica Licher) $69,000, 1/10-12/11.
  • “Urban N and P Runoff Study”, Virginia, PI: Daniels, W.L (CSES), Co-PI: Maguire, R., (CSES), Goatley, M., (CSES), Sample, D. (BSE), Wetland Studies and Solutions, Inc., $15,000, 3/10-12/10.