David Sample, P.E.
- Extension Specialist
Ph.D., Civil Engineering, University of Colorado, 2003
M.S., Environmental Engineering, University of Florida, 1984
B.S., Environmental Engineering, University of Florida, 1981
August 2015 - present – Associate Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
August 2008 - July 2015 – Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Department of Biological Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech
May 2005-June 2008 – Principal Engineer and Practice Leader, Water Resources, Brown and Caldwell, Atlanta, GA.
April 2004- May 2005 – Senior Water Resources Engineer, MACTEC Engineering and Consulting, Kennesaw, GA.
August 2003-April 2004 – Senior Water Resource Engineer, ENTRIX Environmental, Atlanta, GA.
July 2000- August 2003 – Senior Water Resource Engineer, LAW Engineering, Kennesaw, GA.
August 1995-January 1997 – District Engineer, Left Hand Water District, Longmont, CO.
February 1989-May 1993 – City Engineer, City of Gainesville, Gainesville, GA.
September 1988-February 1989 – County Engineer, Columbia County, Evans, GA.
August 1987-September 1988 – Assistant County Engineer, Richmond County, Augusta, GA.
May 1986-June 1987 – Environmental Engineer, GZA Environmental, Newton, MA.
February 1984-May 1986 – Environmental Engineer, US EPA Region 4, Atlanta, GA.
September 1983-February 1984 – Project Engineer, Taulmann Corporation, Atlanta, GA.
September 1982-June 1983 – Water Resource Engineer, South Florida Water Management District, West Palm Beach, FL.
Selected Major Awards
- Chesapeake Stormwater Network, 3rd Place, Ultra-Urban BMP Category, 2014 Best Urban BMP in the Bay, Team award, Adamstown, MD, May 13-15, 2014.
- James River Association, 2nd Place, Site Design, Suburban Mixed Use Category for Virginia’s Low Impact Development Competition, Team award, Lexington, Virginia, April 12, 2012.
- American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Blue Ribbon Award, Educational Aids: Comprehensive Publications (33 or more pages), Team award, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers for: Urban Nutrient Management Handbook, Dallas, Texas, July 29-August 1, 2012.
- American Academy of Water Resources Engineers, Diplomat, 2005.
Other Teaching and Advising
I currently advise and mentor two M.S. students, and one Ph.D. student, Kyle Knupp, Mike Harrison, and Mina Shahed Behrouz. Since 2014, 4 Ph.D. students (1 coadvised with D. Scott) and 5 M.S. student (one coadvised with T. Thompson) have graduated from my program.
I am a member of several regional and statewide committees that focus upon watershed management. These include the Science and Technical Advisory Committee for the Chesapeake Bay Program, 2010-2018 U.S. EPA, and the Urban Water Resources Research Council of the Environment and Water Resources Institute, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE); I currently chair the Stormwater Modeling Standing Committee. I am also a member of the American
Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, Water Environment Federation, and the American
My research program focuses upon improving the management of urban stormwater at its source, advancing the design of stormwater control measures (SCMs), also known as best management practices (BMPs), to improve resulting water quality. Outputs include improved mathematical models and monitoring techniques for assessing SCM performance. These outputs support improved design. Better designed SCMs are more predictable, and more effective, achieving greater pollution reduction at lower costs, which will lead to improved surface water quality publications, and reports.
Extension Program Focus
The goal of my extension program is to improve the understanding of practices used in managing urban stormwater. My extension activities are intended to extend proven LID research to stormwater managers and designers as they adapt designs to improve water quality performance. Another goal is to provide appropriate information to the public that will build capacity and knowledge on improving quality of urban runoff and other nonpoint source issues. As part of meeting these objectives, my extension program develops education programs targeted at groups with the greatest need in the most current issues in stormwater management. These include developing a watershed-based educational series; providing technical and educational guidance on stormwater BMPs; and working collaboratively with local/state/federal agencies, consultants, and other academics in developing an evaluation protocol for BMPs that incorporate proprietary technologies, verifying performance without hindering innovation. I have developed a series of self-sustaining Extension workshops focused on educating BMP designers and reviewers about the newest and most cost-effective urban stormwater treatments available. The objective of these workshops will be to increase the capacity of my audiences so they are able to use leading edge engineering practices to address water quality issues.
Developing a self-sustaining workshop series on urban watershed management
Exploring the implementation of an evaluation program for proprietary BMPs in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, a U.S. EPA Science and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC) funded workshop
Urban Nutrient Management Certification/Training program with VDCR - My contribution is a primer on urban runoff management. A modified version of this chapter was later used as a text for the Chesapeake Bay Certified Landscape Professionals program.
Selected Recent Publications
(*advisee or postdoc,**visiting scholars in my program)
Refereed Journal Articles
Alamdari*, N., Sample, D.J., Ross, A.C., and Easton, Z.M., 2019. Evaluating the Impact of Climate Change on Water Quality and Quantity in an Urban Watershed Using an Ensemble Approach. Estuaries and Coasts, 43:56-72. doi:10.1007/s12237-019-00649-4.
Alamdari*, N. and Sample, D.J., 2019. A multiobjective simulation-optimization tool for assisting in urban watershed restoration planning. Journal of Cleaner Production, 213, 251-261. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.12.108
Ketabchy*, M., Sample, D.J., Wynn-Thompson, T., and Nayeb Yazdi*, M., 2019. Simulation of watershed-scale practices for mitigating stream thermal pollution due to urbanization. Science of the Total Environment, 671, 215-231. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.248.
Mack, R., Owen, J.S., Niemiera, A.X., and Sample, D.J., 2019. Validation of Nursery and Greenhouse Best Management Practices through Scientific Evidence. HortTechnology, 29(6), 700-715. doi:10.21273/horttech04303-19.
Nayeb Yazdi*, M., Ketabchy*, M., Sample, D.J., Scott, D., and Liao, H., 2019. An evaluation of HSPF and SWMM for simulating streamflow regimes in an urban watershed. Environmental Modelling & Software, 118, 211-225. doi: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2019.05.008.
Nayeb Yazdi,* M., Sample, D.J., Scott, D., Owen, J.S., Ketabchy*, M., and Alamdari*, N., 2019. Water quality characterization of storm and irrigation runoff from a container nursery. Science of the Total Environment, 667, 166-178. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.326.
Rosa**c, A., Mendiondo, E. M., Macedo, M. B., De Sousa, V. C., Sample, D.J., and Procopiuck, M., 2019. Sustainable urban drainage: delineation of a scientific domain of knowledge production. Revista Tecnologia e Sociedade, 15(38), 18–36. doi:10.3895/rts.v15n38.9017.
Spangler*, J.T., Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., Owen, J.S., and White, S.A., 2019. Floating treatment wetland aided nutrient removal from agricultural runoff using two wetland species. Ecological Engineering, 127, 468-479. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.12.017.
Spangler*, J.T., Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., Owen, J.S., and White, S.A., 2019. Data on floating treatment wetland aided nutrient removal from agricultural runoff using two wetland species. Data in Brief, 22 (2), 756-761. doi:10.1016/j.dib.2018.12.037
Spangler*, J.T., Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., Albano, J.P., and White, S.A., 2019. Assessing nitrogen and phosphorus removal potential of five plant species in floating treatment wetlands receiving simulated nursery runoff. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26(6), 5751-5768. doi:10.1007/s11356-018-3964-0.
Wang**, Q., Zhang, D., Zhou, X., Liu, J., Liu, Q., Li, X., Sample, D.J., Zhang, Y., and Zhang, R., 2019. Comparing Yield, Quality, Water Use Efficiency, and Value between Fodder and Grain Produced Using Ridge-Furrow Rainwater Harvesting in a Semiarid Region. Crop Science, 59(5), 2214-2226. doi:10.2135/cropsci2019.03.0180.
Zhang, D., Wang**, Q., Li, G., Li, X., and Sample, D.J., 2019. Optimum ridge width and suitable mulching material for sainfoin production with ridge-furrow rainwater harvesting in semiarid regions of China. Arid Land Research and Management, 33(3), 274-296. doi:10.1080/15324982.2018.1563241.
Zhu, D.**, Cheng, X., Sample, D.J., and Nayeb Yazdi*, M., 2019. Effect of intermittent aeration mode on nitrogen concentration in the water column and sediment pore water of aquaculture ponds. Journal of Environmental Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.jes.2019.11.022.
Zhu**, D., Cheng, X., Sample, D.J., and Nayeb Yazdi*, M., 2019. The effect of temperature on sulfate release from Pearl River sediments in South China. Science of the Total Environment, 688, 1112-1123. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.185.
Alamdari*, N., Sample, D.J., Liu*, J., and Ross, A., 2018. Assessing climate change impacts on the reliability of rainwater harvesting systems. Resources Conservation and Recycling, 132, 178-189. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.12.013.
Alamdari*, N., Sample, D.J., Liu*, J., Ross, A., 2018. Water supply and runoff capture reliability curves for hypothetical rainwater harvesting systems for locations across the U.S. for historical and projected climate conditions, e.g., Data in Brief. 18, 441-447.
Johnson*, R.D., Sample, D.J., and McCoy, K.J., 2018. GIS-Based Method for Estimating Surficial Groundwater Levels in Coastal Virginia Using Limited Information. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 144(7), 05018004. doi: 10.1061/%28ASCE%29IR.1943-4774.0001313.
Ketabchy*, M., Sample, D.J., Wynn-Thompson, T., and Nayeb Yazdi*, M., 2018. Thermal evaluation of urbanization using a hybrid approach. Journal of Environmental Management, 226, 457-475. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.08.016.
Tavakol-Davani, H., Burian, S.J., Butler, D., Sample, D.J., Devkota, J., and Apul, D., 2018. Combining Hydrologic Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment Approaches to Evaluate Sustainability of Water Infrastructure. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 144(11), 05018006. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0001340.
Alamdari*, N., Sample, D.J., Steinberg, P., Ross, A.C., and Easton, Z.M., 2017. Assessing the Effects of Climate Change on Water Quantity and Quality in an Urban Watershed Using a Calibrated Stormwater Model. Water, 9(7), 464. doi:10.3390/W9070464. Citations: 32.
Johnson*, R.D. and, D.J., 2017. A semi-distributed model for locating stormwater best management practices in coastal environments. Environmental Modelling & Software, 91, 70-86. doi:10.1007/s10661-017-5930-6.
Schwartz, D., Sample, D.J., and Grizzard, T.J., 2017. Evaluating the performance of a retrofitted stormwater wet pond for treatment of urban runoff. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 189(6), 256.
Wang, X., Sample, D.J., Pedram, S., and Zhao, X., 2017. Performance of two prevalent infiltration models for disturbed urban soils. Hydrology Research, 48(6), 1520-1536. doi:10.2166/nh.2017.217. .
Lucas, W.C. and Sample, D.J., 2015. Reducing combined sewer overflows by using outlet controls for Green Stormwater Infrastructure: Case study in Richmond, Virginia. Journal of Hydrology, 520, 473-488.
Lynch, J., Fox, L.J., Owen, J.S., and Sample, D.J., 2015. Evaluation of commercial floating treatment wetland technologies for nutrient remediation of stormwater. Ecological Engineering, 75, 61-69.
Wang*, C.-Y., Sample, D.J., Day, S. D., and Grizzard, T. J., 2015. Floating treatment wetland nutrient removal through vegetation harvest and observations from a field study. Ecological Engineering, 78, 15-26.
Liu*, J., Sample, D.J., and Zhang, H., 2014. Frequency Analysis for Precipitation Events and Dry Durations of Virginia. Environmental Modeling and Assessment, 19(3), 167-178. Citations: 8.
Liu, J.*, Sample, D.J., Bell*, C., and Guan, Y., 2014. Review and research needs of bioretention used for the treatment of urban stormwater, Water, 6 (4), 1069-1099. Citations: 151.
Sample, D.J. and Liu*, J., 2014. Optimizing rainwater harvesting systems for the dual purposes of water supply and runoff capture. Journal of Cleaner Production, 75, 174-194. Citations: 93.
Sample, D.J., Lucas, W.C., Janeski, T., Roseen, R.M., Powers, D., Freeborn, J., and Fox, L.J., 2014. Greening Richmond, USA: a sustainable urban drainage demonstration project. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 167(2), 88-95.
Sample, D.J., Rangarajan, S., Lee, J., Manguerra, H., and Boone, M., 2014. Urban Wet-Weather Flows. Water Environment Research, 86(10), 910-991.
Wang*, C.-Y. and Sample, D.J., 2014. Assessment of the nutrient removal effectiveness of floating treatment wetlands applied to urban retention ponds. Journal of Environmental Management, 137, 23-35. Citations: 83.
Wang,* C.-Y., Sample, D.J., and Bell*, C., 2014. Vegetation effects on floating treatment wetland nutrient removal and harvesting strategies in urban stormwater ponds. Science of the Total Environment, 499, 384-393. Citations: 57.
Sample, D.J., Liu*, J., and Wang, S., 2013. Evaluating the Dual Benefits of Rainwater Harvesting Systems Using Reliability Analysis. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 18(10), 1310-1321. Citations: 18.
Wang*, C.-Y. and Sample, D.J., 2013. Assessing floating treatment wetlands nutrient removal performance through a first order kinetics model and statistical inference. Ecological Engineering, 61, 292-302. Citations: 42.
Rangarajan, S., Sample, D.J., Boone, M., Lee, J., Muneer, A., Narayanaswamy, K., and Hochstedler, M., 2012. Urban Wet-Weather Flows. Water Environment Research, 84(10), 861-970.
Sample, D.J. and Powers, D.B., 2012. An analytical method for evaluating pumps for a storage-pump system. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 28(4), 559-565.
Sample, D.J., Grizzard, T.J., Sansalone, J., Davis, A.P., Roseen, R., and Walker, J., 2012. Assessing the performance of manufactured treatment practices for removing phosphorus from urban stormwater, Journal of Environmental Management. 113, 279-291..
Dindinger, J., Kyler, K., Rockler, A., Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hughes, S., 2020. Basic Principles of Watershed Restoration and Stormwater. Maryland Cooperative Extension, EB-440. https://extension.umd.edu/learn/publications/basic-principles-watershed-restoration-and-stormwater-management-chesapeake-bay
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2020. Urban Stormwater: Terms and Definitions (VCE Pub. 426-119. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-119/426-119.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Rooftop Disconnection, BMP Fact Sheet #1. VCE Pub. 426-120. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-120/426-120.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Sheetflow to Open Space, BMP Fact Sheet #2. VCE Pub. 426-121. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-121/426-121.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Grass Channels, BMP Fact Sheet #3. VCE Pub. 426-122. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-122/426-122.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Soil Restoration, BMP Fact Sheet #4. VCE Pub. 426-123. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-123/426-123.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Vegetated Roofs, BMP Fact Sheet #5. VCE Pub. 426-124. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-124/426-124.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Rainwater Harvesting, BMP Fact Sheet #6. VCE Pub. 426-125. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-125/426-125.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Permeable Pavement, BMP Fact Sheet #7. VCE Pub. 426-126. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-126/426-126.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Infiltration Practices, BMP Fact Sheet #8. VCE Pub. 426-127. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-127/426-127.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Bioretention, BMP Fact Sheet #9 (VCE Pub. 426-128. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-128/426-128.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Dry Swale, BMP Fact Sheet #10 (VCE Pub. 426-129. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-129/426-129.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Wet Swale, BMP Fact Sheet #11 (VCE Pub. 426-130. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-130/426-130.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Filtering Practices, BMP Fact Sheet #12 (VCE Pub. 426-131. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-131/426-131.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Constructed Wetlands, BMP Fact Sheet #13 (VCE Pub. 426-132. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-132/426-132.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Wet Pond/Retention Pond, BMP Fact Sheet #14 (VCE Pub. 426-133. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-133/426-133.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Hendrix, C., 2019. Extended Detention Pond, BMP Fact Sheet #15. VCE Pub. 426-134. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-134/426-134.html
Fox, L.J., Sample, D.J., Robinson*, D.J., and Wolford, C.E., 2018. Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 1 Rooftop Redirection (disconnection). https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/SPES/SPES-9/SPES-9.html
Fox, L.J., Sample, D.J., Robinson*, D.J., and Nelson, G.E., 2018. Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 2 Rain Barrels. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/SPES/SPES-10/SPES-10.html
Fox, L.J., Sample, D.J., Robinson*, D.J., and Wolford, C. E., 2018. Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 3 Permeable Pavement. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/SPES/SPES-11/SPES-11.html
Fox, L.J., Sample, D.J., Robinson*, D.J., and Nelson, G.E., 2018. Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 4 Grass Swale. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/SPES/SPES-12/SPES-12.html
Fox, L.J., Sample, D.J., and Robinson*, D.J., 2018. Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 5 Rain Gardens. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/SPES/SPES-13/SPES-13.html
Fox, L.J., Sample, D.J., and Robinson*, D.J., 2018. Stormwater Management for Homeowners Fact Sheet 6 Buffers. https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/SPES/SPES-14/SPES-14.html
Sample, D.J., Owen, J.S., Fields, J.S., and Barlow, S., 2016. Understanding Soil Moisture Sensors: A Fact Sheet for Irrigation Professionals in Virginia (VCE Pub. BSE-198). https://www.pubs.ext.vt.edu/BSE/BSE-198/BSE-198.html
Sample, D.J., Fox, L.J., and Galbraith, J., 2014. Decentralized Small Community Wastewater Collection Systems Fact Sheet (VCE Pub. BSE-77).
Sample, D.J., Wang*, C.-Y., and Fox, L.J., 2013. Innovative Best Management Fact Sheet No. 1: Floating Treatment Wetlands (VCE Pub. BSE-76P).
Selected Recent Funding
Selected Recent Funding
Fredericksburg-Rappahannock River watershed water quality study: Conducting watershed runoff monitoring, modeling, calibration, identification/selection least cost SCMs for meeting Bay TMDL, uncertainty analysis, assessment of acid sulphate soils, analysis of SCM media. Amount: $260,000. PIs: D. Sample, W.L. Daniels, 5/1/2019-12/31/2020. Sponsor: Resource Protection Group, LLC and Virginia Tech Foundation (donor).
Rainkeepers II-Stormwater Pollution Mitigation at the Science Museum of Virginia: Conducting monitoring of runoff after conversion of parking to forest/park, design, monitoring and model development of advanced bioretention systems (N removal). Amount: $78,447. PIs: D. Sample, 8/10/2019-8/9/2020.
Effectiveness of stormwater management practices in protecting stream channel stability: Develop hydrologic/water quality model linked with 1-D geomorphologic model to assess stream stability within two suburban Maryland watersheds, one with intensive low impact development, the other with virtually no stormwater controls. Amount: $177,555, PIs: Thompson T; Sample D, 06/01/2018-12/31/2019. Sponsor: Chesapeake Bay Trust.
Water Sustainability and Climate: Conduct coupled multi-scale economic, hydrologic, and estuarine modeling to assess impacts of climate change on the Chesapeake watershed, and assess the impacts on BMPs in meeting the Chesapeake Bay TMDL, Also conducted a supplemental evaluation of joint impacts of urbanization and climate change. Amount: $671,860. PI: Z. Easton. Co-PIs: Sample, D.J., D. Bosch, R. Najjar, M. Li. 7/1/14-6/30/17. Sponsor: National Science Foundation.
Modeling Climate Change Effects on an Urban Stormwater System in Coastal Virginia: Competitive fellowship for Ph.D. student N. Alamdari, work coordinated with the City of Virginia Beach Stormwater Division. Amount: $40,000, PI: D. Sample, Fellow: N. Alamdari. 8/10/16-8/9/18. Sponsor: The Virginia Institute of Marine Science, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, and Virginia Sea Grant.
City of Virginia Beach, Stormwater Technical Services: Provided modeling, water quality, regulatory, monitoring, and training support to the City of Virginia Beach Stormwater Program through a master services agreement, specific task orders and budgets individually negotiated. Current tasks include monitoring a retention pond and several distinct land uses and calibration of SWMM models, and comparison with HSPF models disaggregated from the Chesapeake Bay watershed model. Amount: $1,500,000 (maximum contract). PI: D. Sample. 05/03/16-05/02/21. Sponsor: City of Virginia Beach.
Clean WaterR3- Reduce, Remediate, Recycle: Increasing profitability in specialty crops: Due to increasing demand and competition for water supply, growers at commercial, wholesale nurseries are pursuing alternative sources of water. Developing models of operations, particularly runoff water quality, will aid growers with identification and implementation of innovative technologies to recycle water for reuse. Conducted floating wetland evaluation as a potential remediation technology. Amount: $8,734,105. PI: White, S.A. (Clemson Univ.). 9/1/14-8/31/19. Sponsor: USDA/NIFA.
“Shockoe Creek Sewershed LID Retrofit Study”, Richmond, VA, PI: Sample, D. (BSE), Science Museum of Virginia/National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, $34,000, 1/11-4/12.
“Development of a Phosphorus Testing Protocol for Manufactured Treatment Devices”, Virginia, PI: Sample, D. (BSE), Co-PI: T. Grizzard (CEE), Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, $44,000, 6/09-5/10.
“Long-term Costs and Management Issues Associated with Stormwater BMPs”, PI: Stephenson, K., (AAEC), Co-PI: Sample, D. (BSE), Richardson, J. (UAP), U.S. EPA STAR Fellowship (PhD Student Monica Licher) $69,000, 1/10-12/11.
“Urban N and P Runoff Study”, Virginia, PI: Daniels, W.L (CSES), Co-PI: Maguire, R., (CSES), Goatley, M., (CSES), Sample, D. (BSE), Wetland Studies and Solutions, Inc., $15,000, 3/10-12/10.